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CLASSICAL RANGE: The vertical segment of the Keynesian aggregate supply curve that reflects the independence of full-employment aggregate output (or gross domestic product) to the price level. Shifts of the aggregate demand curve in this range lead to changes in the price level, but not changes in aggregate output. Such results are consistent with classical economics, which is why this is termed the "classical" range. The other ranges of the Keynesian aggregate supply curve are the Keynesian range and the intermediate range.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Basic Flow
  • Overview
  • Four Sectors
  • Three Markets
  • The Physical Flow
  • The Payment Flow
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Financial Markets
  • The Paper Economy
  • Saving
  • Investment
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Government
  • What It Does
  • Taxes
  • Government Purchases
  • Government Borrowing
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Foreign
  • Foreign Trade
  • Exports and Imports
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Real World
  • Expenditures
  • Production And Income
  • Investment
  • Government Spending
  • Saving
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Circular Flow

    This lesson introduces the circular flow model of the macroeconomy. The circular flow is a simple model based on the buying and selling relation between the household and business sectors which occurs through the product and factor markets. As a bonus, we complicate the simply circular flow model, by including the government and foreign sectors, and the financial markets. This lesson introduces several important macroeconomic concept, but more importantly, provides a useful model for interpreting macroeconomic activity.

    • In the first unit, we get an introduction to the simplest circular flow model that includes the household and business sectors and the product and factor markets.
    • The second unit builds on the simple model by introducing the financial markets, which highlights the importance of household saving and business investment.
    • The circular flow is expanding further in the third unit, with the introduction of the government sector, which highlights how taxes are diverted away from the household sector.
    • The fourth unit adds one more sector to the circular flow model, the foreign sector, which illustrates the roles played exports and imports.
    • The fifth unit wraps up this lesson by showing how several key measures of production and income revealed in the analysis of gross domestic production related to the circular flow.

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    SHORT RUN, MICROECONOMICS

    In terms of the microeconomic analysis of production and supply, a period of time in which at least one input under the control of a firm used in the production process is variable and at least one input is fixed. In the short run, the variable input is usually labor and the fixed input is capital. The short-run analysis of production reveals the law of diminishing marginal returns and provides an understanding of the upward-sloping supply curve and the law of supply. This is one of four production time periods used in the study of microeconomics. The other three are long run, very long run, and very short run (or market period). The short run is also a time period designation used in the macroeconomic analysis of business cycles.

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