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NEEDS STANDARD: One of three basic income distribution standards (the other two are contributive standard and equality standard). The needs standard distributes income based on how many goods and services people require. A manual laborer, for example, who exerts more physical effort, would receive more income to buy more food that an office worker who burns fewer calories during the day. The U.S. welfare system primarily employs this needs standard when determining the poverty line and subsequent welfare payments.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Instability
  • What It Is
  • Fluctuations
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Extension
  • Instability
  • Self-Correction
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Basic Shifts
  • AD Shifts
  • AD Increase: Long Run
  • AD Decrease: Long Run
  • AD Increase: Short Run
  • AD Decrease: Short Run
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Complex Shifts
  • AD
  • AD Increase
  • AD Decrease
  • SRAS
  • SRAS Increase
  • SRAS Decrease
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Synthesis
  • Business Cycles
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Aggregate Shocks

    In this lesson we use the aggregate market model to analyze assorted disruptions that cause shifts of the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, and long-run aggregate supply curves. The reason for doing this, of course, is to explain and understand macroeconomic activity, especially business cycle instability that causes inflation and unemployment.

    • The first unit of this lesson reviews the aggregate market and examines how it is affected macroeconomic instability.
    • In the second unit, we take and look at assorted demands on both the demand side and supply side of the aggregate market that cause shorts to the aggregate market.
    • We then move into an analysis of six basic shifts involving increases and decreases in the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, and long-run aggregate supply curves.
    • The fourth unit builds on these six basic shifts to examine four complex shifts in which recessionary and inflationary gaps trigger self-correction adjustments of the short-run aggregate supply.
    • We close out this lesson in the fifth with a thought or two on how the aggregate market can be used to explain business cycle fluctuations.

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    FACTOR DEMAND CURVE

    A graphical representation of the relationship between the price to a factor of production and quantity of the factor demanded, holding all ceteris paribus factor demand determinants constant. The factor demand curve is one half of the factor market. The other half is the factor supply curve.

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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time surfing the Internet wanting to buy either a how-to book on building remote controlled airplanes or an extra large beach blanket. Be on the lookout for slow moving vehicles with darkened windows.
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    Post WWI induced hyperinflation in German in the early 1900s raised prices by 726 million times from 1918 to 1923.
    "Inside the ring or out, ain't nothing wrong with going down. It's staying down that's wrong. "

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