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AGGREGATE: A common modifier for an assortment of economic terms used in the study of macroeconomics that signifies a comprehensive, often national, total value. This modifier most often surfaces in the study of the AS-AD, or "aggregate market", model of the economy with such terms as aggregate demand and aggregate supply. For example, aggregate demand indicates the total demand for production in the macroeconomy and aggregate supply indicates the total amount of that output produced. Two other noted "aggregate" terms are aggregate expenditures and aggregate production function.

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Lesson 12: Business Cycles | Unit 4: Causes Page: 19 of 26

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Three points about investment and business cycles:
  • First: Investment is sensitive to interest rates. Higher interest rates increase the cost of investment borrowing and discourages investment.
  • Second: Interest rates rise and fall with the business cycle. During an expansion, interest rates rise enough to discourage investment, and trigger a contraction. During a contraction, interest rates fall enough to encourage investment and cause a new expansion.
  • Third: Investment doesn't react immediately to interest rates. The production of capital goods takes time and does not respond instantly to interest rate changes.
Interest-rate-induced changes in investment seem to be a natural cause-and-effect part of business cycles.

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AGGREGATE SUPPLY DECREASE, SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET

A shock to the short-run aggregate market caused by a decrease in aggregate supply, resulting in and illustrated by a leftward shift of the short-run aggregate supply curve. A decrease in aggregate supply in the short-run aggregate market results in an increase in the price level and a decrease in real production. The level of real production resulting from the shock can be greater or less than full-employment real production.

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Parker Brothers, the folks who produce the Monopoly board game, prints more Monopoly money each year than real currency printed by the U.S. government.
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