March 23, 2018 

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NO-RESERVE BANKING: A (hypothetical) method of banking in which banks keep 0 percent of their deposits in the form of bank reserves, meaning that ALL deposits are used for interest-paying loans. No-reserve banking is one of two theoretical alternatives designed to help illustrate a contrast to the fractional-reserve banking actually practiced by modern banks. The other alternative is full-reserve banking. With the no-reserve approach a bank operates as financial intermediary or broker, matching up borrowers and lenders.

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Lesson 12: Business Cycles | Unit 4: Causes Page: 19 of 26

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Three points about investment and business cycles:
  • First: Investment is sensitive to interest rates. Higher interest rates increase the cost of investment borrowing and discourages investment.
  • Second: Interest rates rise and fall with the business cycle. During an expansion, interest rates rise enough to discourage investment, and trigger a contraction. During a contraction, interest rates fall enough to encourage investment and cause a new expansion.
  • Third: Investment doesn't react immediately to interest rates. The production of capital goods takes time and does not respond instantly to interest rate changes.
Interest-rate-induced changes in investment seem to be a natural cause-and-effect part of business cycles.

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The total (or aggregate) real production of final goods and services available in the domestic economy at a range of price levels, during a given time period. Aggregate supply, usually abbreviated AS, is two different relations between price level and real production--long run and short run. With long-run aggregate supply, prices and wages are flexible and all markets are in equilibrium. With short-run aggregate supply some prices and wage are NOT flexible and some markets are NOT in equilibrium. This is one half of the AS-AD (aggregate market) analysis. The other half is aggregate demand.

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