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PATENT: The guaranteed ownership and control of an invention, innovation, or production technique by government for a period of time (currently 17 years). A patent gives the owner the exclusive rights to sell, market, license, or otherwise generate revenue from an invention, innovation, or production technique. Patents are designed to encourage inventions and other developments that promote technological advances. However, they are also an entry barrier and lead to market control.

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Lesson 12: Business Cycles | Unit 1: Instability Page: 2 of 26

Topic: Business Cycles <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Business cycles are irregular, nonperiodic fluctuations in aggregate economic activity. Life is good, then it's bad. It's a roller coaster ride.

For example, the Great Depression was the worst economic period in this century.

  • Unemployment reached 25%.
  • Total production declined by about 40%.
  • Investment declined by 90%.
During the 1920s, production was up, unemployment was down, life was good, then it got bad.
  • Although we use the term 'cycle', we don't know how long an expansion or a contraction will last. The economy might expand for a year or it might expand for a decade before it declines.

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GOVERNMENT PURCHASES

Expenditures made by the government sector on final goods and services, or gross domestic product. Government purchases are used to buy the goods and services needed to operate the government (such as administrative salaries) and to provide public goods (including national defense, highway construction). These purchases are one of two major categories of government spending, the other is transfer payments. Government purchases are financed by a mix of taxes and borrowing and are categorized by the three levels of government: federal, state, and local governments. These are one of four expenditures on gross domestic product. The other three are consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, and net exports.

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BLACK DISMALAPOD
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale seeking to buy either a coffee cup commemorating the 2000 Olympics or a birthday gift for your grandmother. Be on the lookout for bottles of barbeque sauce that act TOO innocent.
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This isn't me! What am I?

Al Capone's business card said he was a used furniture dealer.
"Now is the only time there is. Make your now wow, your minutes miracles, and your days pay. Your life will have been magnificently lived and invested, and when you die you will have made a difference."

-- Mark Victor Hansen

WLLN
Weak Law of Large Numbers
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