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AGGREGATE DEMAND CURVE: A graphical representation of the relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level, holding all ceteris paribus aggregate demand determinants constant. The aggregate demand, or AD, curve is one side of the graphical presentation of the aggregate market. The other side is occupied by the aggregate supply curve (which is actually two curves, the long-run aggregate supply curve and the short-run aggregate supply curve). The negative slope of the aggregate demand curve captures the inverse relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level. This negative slope is attributable to the interest-rate effect, real-balance effect, and net-export effect.

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Lesson 12: Business Cycles | Unit 1: Instability Page: 5 of 26

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  • The natural tendency for the economy to expand and contract.
  • Business cycles, which are irregular, nonperiodic fluctuations in aggregate economic activity.
  • The Great Depression, the worst economic period in this century.
  • Expansionary good times that mean more production and rising living standards, but also inflation and inefficiency problems.
  • Contractionary bad times that mean unemployment, less production, lower profits, bankruptcies, and social problems, but also lower inflation and more efficiency resource allocation.

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AGGREGATE SUPPLY INCREASE, SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET

A shock to the short-run aggregate market caused by an increase in aggregate supply, resulting in and illustrated by a rightward shift of the short-run aggregate supply curve. An increase in aggregate supply in the short-run aggregate market results in a decrease in the price level and an increase in real production. The level of real production resulting from the shock can be greater or less than full-employment real production.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a flea market looking to buy either a wall poster commemorating yesterday or pink cotton balls. Be on the lookout for empty parking spaces that appear to be near the entrance to a store.
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It's estimated that the U.S. economy has about $20 million of counterfeit currency in circulation, less than 0.001 perecent of the total legal currency.
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