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ACTUAL INVESTMENT: Investment expenditures that the business sector actual undertakes during a given time period, including both planned investment and any unplanned inventory changes. This is a critical component of Keynesian economics and the analysis of macroeconomic equilibrium, which occurs when actual investment is equal to planned investment. The difference between planned and actual investment is unplanned investment, which is inventory changes caused by a difference between aggregate expenditures and aggregate output. Should actual and planned investment differ, then aggregate expenditures are not equal to aggregate output, and the macroeconomy is not in equilibrium.

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Lesson 12: Business Cycles | Unit 2: A Simple Cycle Page: 8 of 26

Topic: Trough <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Contractions don't last forever. The end of a contraction is the trough, the turning point to an expansion.
  • Point B is the end of the contraction and the beginning of the expansion, the trough.
  • A trough is the turning point between a contraction and an expansion.
  • A trough is the lowest level reached by the economy before an expansion begins, the dark before the dawn.
  • Turning points are important because they are the transition from bad to good of good to bad.
  • A turning point might not be identified until well after it has happened.

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PRICE RATIONING

The distribution or allocation of a limited commodity using markets and prices. Rationing is needed due to the scarcity problem. Because wants and needs are unlimited, but resources are limited, available commodities must be rationed out to competing uses. Markets ration commodities by limiting the purchase only to those buyers willing and able to pay the price.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at an auction wanting to buy either any book written by Stephan King or a T-shirt commemorating next Thursday. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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Sixty percent of big-firm executives said the cover letter is as important or more important than the resume itself when you're looking for a new job
"God gives talent; work transforms talent into genius. "

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