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AGGREGATE MARKET EQUILIBRIUM: The state of equilibrium that exists in the aggregate market when real aggregate expenditures are equal to real production with no imbalances to induce changes in the price level or real production. In other words, the opposing forces of aggregate demand (the buyers) and aggregate supply (the sellers) exactly offset each other. The four macroeconomic sector (household, business, government, and foreign) buyers purchase all of the real production that they seek at the existing price level and business-sector producers sell all of the real production that they have at the existing price level. The aggregate market equilibrium actually comes in two forms: (1) long-run equilibrium, in which all three aggregated markets (product, financial, and resource) are in equilibrium and (2) short-run equilibrium, in which the product and financial markets are in equilibrium, but the resource markets are not.

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Lesson 13: Aggregate Demand | Unit 1: The Concept Page: 1 of 22

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In this lesson we take a look at the demand side of the aggregate market (AD/AS analysis)--aggregate demand.

A definition:

Aggregate Demand is the aggregate or total expenditure on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy, at a range of price levels, during a given time period (usually a year).

Three points:

  • Expenditures are made by all members of society.
  • Expenditures are made during the year.
  • Expenditures are on the production that people use to satisfy wants and needs.
Aggregate demand is only one side of the aggregate market--the expenditure side--the other side is aggregate supply--the producing side.
  • Expenditures come from the household, business, government, and foreign sectors.
  • Production comes from resources--labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship.
  • The aggregate market is a model used to analyze the economy's total production and the price level.
  • This analysis, also called AD/AS, lets us understand macroeconomic events, like recessions, inflation, and unemployment.
  • The aggregate market can be used to evaluate the effects of government policies.

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RENT SEEKING

The inclination of everyone who is alive and breathing to get as much extra income, wealth, profit, or satisfaction as they can. Rent, while technically considered the factor payment for the use of land resources, is also commonly used as a synonym for economic profit, for the acquisition of benefits above opportunity cost. Rent seeking is the entirely rational process of obtain as much "extra" as possible. In effect, rent seeking is nothing more than utility maximization. Efficiency problems can arise, however, when rent seeking is enhanced and enabled through market control, political influence, or actions of special interest groups.

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