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September 20, 2018 

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FIRST ESTATE: In past centuries, this included the religious leaders and clergy. In modern times, I like to use it in reference to politicians and government leaders who can exert a great deal of control over resources through the coercive powers of government. One historical function of the first estate is to protect the less powerful consumers, taxpayers, and workers of the third estate from the market control typically held by the business leaders of the second estate. It is not uncommon, however, for an unhealthy degree of cooperation between the first and second estates, which often ends up with the enslavement of the third estate (figuratively and literally). At times help is forthcoming from the watchdog journalist of the fourth estate--unless they too have been overtaken by the ruling elite.

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Lesson 15: Aggregate Market | Unit 5: Policy Preview Page: 20 of 22

Topic: Time <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

It takes time to move the economy from short run equilibrium to long run equilibrium.

Two options:

  • Wait for self-correcting mechanism --> A short-run imbalance in the labor market eventually triggers the steps that move the economy to full-employment production and long-run equilibrium.
  • Take immediate steps --> Induced shifts in the AD, SRAS, LRAS curves that would, presumably reach full employment faster than the self-correcting mechanism.

The critical questions remains:

  • How much time is needed to adjust from the short run to the long run?

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MARGINAL COST AND LAW OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL RETURNS

Decreasing then increasing marginal cost, reflected by a U-shaped marginal cost curve, is the result of increasing then decreasing marginal returns. In particular the decreasing marginal returns is caused by the law of diminishing marginal returns. As such, the law of diminishing marginal returns affects not only the short-run production of a firm but also the cost of short-run production. This translates into a positively-sloped supply curve for profit-maximizing competitive firms.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time touring the new suburban shopping complex seeking to buy either a large stuffed brown and white teddy bear or a replacement washer for your kitchen faucet. Be on the lookout for gnomes hiding in cypress trees.
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Mark Twain said "I wonder how much it would take to buy soap buble if there was only one in the world."
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