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AGGLOMERATION: The clustering of several similar or related activities at the same location. Many industries have firms that tend to agglomerate, that is, locate very close to one another, leading to geographic concentration. For example, the motion picture industry is concentrated in California, the fashion industry is concentrated in New York, and the petroleum industry is concentrated in Texas. Agglomeration can be caused by accessibility to a concentrated natural resource (such as petroleum or sunny weather), but if often feeds upon itself through agglomeration economies. Firms in the same industry often have lower production cost when the located near their competitors.

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Lesson 16: Aggregate Shocks | Unit 4: Complex Shifts Page: 14 of 21

Topic: AD Increase <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

The case of an increase in the AD curve. Let's start at long-run equilibrium. All three curves, AD, LRAS, and SRAS, intersect at the same long-run equilibrium values, Po and Qf.
  • With a rightward shift of the AD curve, the aggregate market achieves short-run equilibrium at a higher price level and more real production.
  • The labor market imbalance causes wages and production cost to rise. The SRAS shifts leftward. It stops shifting when it intersects the new AD and the original LRAS curves for a new long-run equilibrium. The price level is even higher and real production returns to full employment.

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PERFECT COMPETITION, CHARACTERISTICS

The four key characteristics of perfect competition are: (1) a large number of small firms, (2) identical products sold by all firms, (3) perfect resource mobility or the freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and (4) perfect knowledge of prices and technology.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching infomercials hoping to buy either a genuine down-filled pillow or one of those "hang in there" kitty cat posters. Be on the lookout for gnomes hiding in cypress trees.
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Lombard Street is London's equivalent of New York's Wall Street.
"As the births of living creatures at first are ill-shapen, so are all innovations, which are the births of time. "

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