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RESOURCE QUANTITY, AGGREGATE SUPPLY DETERMINANT: One of three categories of aggregate supply determinants assumed constant when the short-run and long-run aggregate supply curves are constructed, and which shifts both aggregate supply curves when it changes. An increase in a resource quantity causes an increase (rightward shift) of both aggregate supply curves. A decrease in a resource quantity causes a decrease (leftward shift) of both aggregate supply curves. The other two categories of aggregate supply determinants are resource quality and resource price. Specific determinants falling into this general category include population, labor force participation, capital stock, and exploration. Anything affecting the quantity of labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship is also included.

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Lesson 16: Aggregate Shocks | Unit 1: Instability Page: 2 of 21

Topic: Fluctuations <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Our goal is to explain business cycle fluctuations.
  • The real GDP path the economy would take with long-run equilibrium--at full employment--is the straight, green upward-sloping line.
  • The actual real GDP path, the jagged red line, tends to be less smooth.
  • The business cycle is the movement above and below the long-run trend.
  • When the actual is below the long-run equilibrium line, we get unemployment.
  • When the actual is above the long-run equilibrium line, we get inflation.
  • Ceteris paribus factors are what create fluctuations away from the long-run trend.
  • Aggregate demand determinants are the main cause.

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GOVERNMENT PURCHASES

Expenditures made by the government sector on final goods and services, or gross domestic product. Government purchases are used to buy the goods and services needed to operate the government (such as administrative salaries) and to provide public goods (including national defense, highway construction). These purchases are one of two major categories of government spending, the other is transfer payments. Government purchases are financed by a mix of taxes and borrowing and are categorized by the three levels of government: federal, state, and local governments. These are one of four expenditures on gross domestic product. The other three are consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, and net exports.

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