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AD VALOREM TARIFF: A tax on imports that is specified as a percentage of the value of the good or service being taxed. This is one form of trade barrier that's intended to restrict imports into a country. Unlike nontariff barriers and quotas, which increase prices and thus revenue received by domestic producers, an 'ad valorem tariff' generates revenue for the government. For example: a 15 percent ad valorem tariff on a TV set worth $100 would pay a tariff of $15. One advantage of an ad valorem tariff is that it keeps up with changes in prices (mostly inflation).

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Lesson 16: Aggregate Shocks | Unit 3: Basic Shifts Page: 9 of 21

Topic: AD Decrease: Long Run <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

The long-run equilibrium is given by the intersection of the negatively-sloped AD curve and the vertical LRAS.
  • A decrease in AD results in a new long-run equilibrium.
  • At the new equilibrium, real production does not change, it stays at Qf. The price level decreases from Po to P2.
  • We're still missing a lot of short-run action that occurs as we go from one long-run equilibrium to another.

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RESERVE REQUIREMENTS

Rules established and enforced by the Federal Reserve System governing the amount of reserves (vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits) that banks must keep to back up their deposits. Reserve requirements help to maintain a stable banking system and ensure that banks are able to conduct day-to-day check-clearing and cash-withdrawal transactions. These requirements are also one of the three monetary policy tools that the Fed can use, in principle, to control the money supply. The other two are open market operations and the discount rate.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time touring the new suburban shopping complex seeking to buy either hand lotion, a big bottle of hand lotion or a lighted magnifying glass. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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A lump of pure gold the size of a matchbox can be flattened into a sheet the size of a tennis court!
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