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October 17, 2018 

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TAX PROPORTIONALITY: The proportion of income paid in taxes at different levels of income. In some taxes the proportion of income paid in taxes increases with income in other cases it decreases. And in still other cases, it remains the same. The three basic types of taxes are proportional taxes, progressive taxes, and regressive taxes. Because almost everyone would like to pay fewer taxes (and presumably have others pay more), tax proportionality is a the center of political controversy. Higher incomes prefer regressive taxes and lower incomes prefer regressive taxes.

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Lesson 17: Money | Unit 2: More About Money Page: 5 of 25

Topic: Medium of Exchange <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

The primary function of money is to as THE medium of exchange.

An economy without money:

  • Barter exchange happens when you trade one good for another.
  • A barter economy is one that uses nothing but barter trades, no money.
  • Barter requires double coincidence of wants: I must want what you have and you must want what I have.
  • With no money, resources are used for trading and not for production.

The bottom line:

  • Using money as a medium of exchange eases the exchange process, makes it more efficient, and frees resources for production.

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MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION, LONG-RUN ADJUSTMENT

A monopolistically competitive industry undertakes a two-part adjustment to equilibrium in the long run. One is the adjustment of each monopolistically competitive firm to the appropriate factory size that maximizes long-run profit. The other is the entry of firms into the industry or exit of firms out of the industry, to eliminate economic profit or economic loss. The end result of this long-run adjustment is two equilibrium conditions--one for profit maximization, the other for zero economic profit.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a crowded estate auction trying to buy either a remote controlled ceiling fan or a how-to book on home decorating. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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Paper money used by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts prior to the U.S. Revolutionary War, which was issued against the dictates of Britain, was designed by patriot and silversmith, Paul Revere.
"Do what you feel in your heart to be right for you'll be criticized anyway. You'll be damned if you do and damned if you don't. "

-- Eleanor Roosevelt, first lady

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