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RESOURCES: The labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship used by society to produce consumer satisfying goods and services. Land provides the basic raw materials--vegetation, animals, minerals, fossil fuels--that are inputs into the production of goods (natural resources). Labor is the resource that does the "hands on" work of transforming raw materials into goods. Capital is the comprehensive term for the vast array of tools, equipment, buildings, and vehicles used in production. Entrepreneurship is the resource that undertakes the risk of bringing the other resources together and initiating the production process.

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Lesson 18: Banking | Unit 3: Reserve Banking Page: 16 of 24

Topic: Goldsmith Reserves <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Knights make gold deposits, others withdraw gold, merchants seek investment loans, and others repay loans.

Fred must keep sufficient gold to satisfy any withdrawal.

Required reserves:

  • Fred concludes that he needs no more than 10 pounds of gold to back each 100 pounds of gold deposits.
  • He doesn't need to keep 100% of the deposits in reserves.

Fred has discovered modern fractional-reserve banking.

Excess Reserves:

  • Fred uses the other 90% for the loans which earn interest and make his business a profitable one.

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AVERAGE TOTAL COST CURVE

A curve that graphically represents the relation between average total cost incurred by a firm in the short-run product of a good or service and the quantity produced. The average total cost curve is constructed to capture the relation between average total cost and the level of output, holding other variables, like technology and resource prices, constant. The average total cost curve is one of three average curves. The other two are average variable cost curve and average fixed cost curve. A related curve is the marginal cost curve.

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GREEN LOGIGUIN
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a flea market wanting to buy either a case for your designer sunglasses or arch supports for your shoes. Be on the lookout for crowded shopping malls.
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This isn't me! What am I?

More money is spent on gardening than on any other hobby.
"A ship ought not to be held by one anchor, nor life by a single hope. "

-- Epictetus, philosopher

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