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PACKAGING: The container and graphic design variable in the marketing mix, (sometimes included in the product). Changes in product distribution and government regulations in contents identification have made the packaging variable a very important component in the organizationŐs marketing strategy. Packaging completes the marketing process by giving the consumer vital information just prior to making the final buy decision.

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Lesson 19: Money Creation | Unit 3: Modern Banking Page: 10 of 23

Topic: Fractional-Reserve Magic <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Modern banks practice fractional-reserve banking, which is the key to money creation.

Note that:

  • Modern reserves take the form of vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits.
  • Both ensure the safety of deposits.
  • Banks seek profits by making loans and adding to checkable deposits.
  • Checkable deposits add to the money supply.
Money creation:
  1. Banks practice fractional-reserve banking, seek revenue through loans, and keep reserves.
  2. Banks keep 10% of outstanding deposits in reserves.
  3. Reserves over those required to are excess reserves.
  4. If a bank has excess reserves, then it can make loans, increase checkable deposits, and create money.

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SHORT RUN, MICROECONOMICS

In terms of the microeconomic analysis of production and supply, a period of time in which at least one input under the control of a firm used in the production process is variable and at least one input is fixed. In the short run, the variable input is usually labor and the fixed input is capital. The short-run analysis of production reveals the law of diminishing marginal returns and provides an understanding of the upward-sloping supply curve and the law of supply. This is one of four production time periods used in the study of microeconomics. The other three are long run, very long run, and very short run (or market period). The short run is also a time period designation used in the macroeconomic analysis of business cycles.

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