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OPTION: A contract that gives the buyer an "option" to complete a transaction within a given time period. Options are used frequently in financial markets.

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Lesson 19: Money Creation | Unit 3: Modern Banking Page: 10 of 23

Topic: Fractional-Reserve Magic <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Modern banks practice fractional-reserve banking, which is the key to money creation.

Note that:

  • Modern reserves take the form of vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits.
  • Both ensure the safety of deposits.
  • Banks seek profits by making loans and adding to checkable deposits.
  • Checkable deposits add to the money supply.
Money creation:
  1. Banks practice fractional-reserve banking, seek revenue through loans, and keep reserves.
  2. Banks keep 10% of outstanding deposits in reserves.
  3. Reserves over those required to are excess reserves.
  4. If a bank has excess reserves, then it can make loans, increase checkable deposits, and create money.

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WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX

An index of the prices paid by retail stores for the products they ultimately resell to consumers. The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) was the forerunner of the modern Producer Price Index (PPI) and was discontinued in 1978. Other noted price indexes used to track economic activity are the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the GDP price deflator.

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