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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE: A principle of taxation in which taxes are based on the income or resource-ownership ability of people to pay the tax. The income tax collected by our friends at the Internal Revenue Service is one of the most common taxes that seeks to abide by the ability-to-pay principle. In theory, the income tax system is set up such that people with greater incomes pay more taxes. Proportional and progressive taxes follow this ability-to-pay principle, while regressive taxes, such as sales taxes and Social Security taxes, don't.

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Lesson 19: Money Creation | Unit 3: Modern Banking Page: 13 of 23

Topic: Yet Another Bank <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

  • A purchase is made with a check written on Bob's State Bank, which is deposited in Charley's Credit Union.
  • Charley's Credit Union adds $81 worth of liabilities to the store's account.
  • This liability is balanced with reserves transferred from Bob's Bank.
  • Bob's Bank losses $81 and Charley's Credit Union gains $81 of reserves.
  • Bob's Bank ends up with $9 of reserves and an $81 loan.
  • Charley's Credit Union has $81 in reserves. It keeps 10% ($8.10), giving it $71.90 of excess reserves.
  • Charley's Credit Union makes a $71.90 loan to a customer.
  • This creates $71.90 of money. The three banks have created $242.90 worth of money.

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BALANCE ON SERVICES

A subset of the balance of payments current account that records the difference between the payments received for exports of services to other nations and the payments made for the imports of services from other nations. The flow of payments is for intangible services, not for physical or tangible goods. The balance on services is thus appropriately divided into services exported and services imported. Two other subsets of the current account include the balance on merchandise trade and unilateral transfers. The commonly termed balance of trade is the sum of the balance on merchandise trade and the balance on services.

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