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AD CURVE: The aggregate demand curve, which is a graphical representation of the relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level, holding all ceteris paribus aggregate demand determinants constant. The aggregate demand, or AD, curve is one side of the graphical presentation of the aggregate market. The other side is occupied by the aggregate supply curve (which is actually two curves, the long-run aggregate supply curve and the short-run aggregate supply curve). The negative slope of the aggregate demand curve captures the inverse relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level. This negative slope is attributable to the interest-rate effect, real-balance effect, and net-export effect.

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Lesson 19: Money Creation | Unit 5: Policy Page: 21 of 23

Topic: Reserve Ratio <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Government controls money creation through two methods, one is reserve requirements.

The Federal Reserve has been given the authority over reserve requirements.

The Federal Reserve:

  • It sets the fraction of deposits a bank must keep in reserve.
  • The primary reason for this authority is to ensure the stability of banks and to facilitate check clearing.
Money supply control:
  • The Federal Reserve can ease money creation by reducing reserve requirements.
  • It can also make money creation more difficult by increasing reserve requirements.

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INFLATION PROBLEMS

Two notable problems are associated with inflation--uncertainty and haphazard redistribution. Inflation, especially inflation that varies from month to month and year to year, makes long-term planning quite difficult. Prices, wages, taxes, interest rates, and other nominal values that enter into consumer, business, and government planning decisions can be significantly affected by inflation. Moreover, inflation tends to redistribute income and wealth in a haphazard manner--some people win and some people lose. This redistribution might not be that desired by society, failing to promote any of the basic economic goals of efficiency, equity, stability, growth, or full-employment.

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Potato chips were invented in 1853 by a irritated chef repeatedly seeking to appease the hard to please Cornelius Vanderbilt who demanded french fried potatoes that were thinner and crisper than normal.
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