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EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK: The central bank for the European Union and Economic and Monetary Union this is charged with monitoring monetary policy and introducing euros into circulation (beginning in 2002). The European Central Bank has a comparable, but perhaps somewhat less powerful, role as the Federal Reserve Board of Governors in the United States. It is took over for the European Monetary Institute in 1998 and is the executive body of the European System of Central Banks.

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Lesson 19: Money Creation | Unit 5: Policy Page: 21 of 23

Topic: Reserve Ratio <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Government controls money creation through two methods, one is reserve requirements.

The Federal Reserve has been given the authority over reserve requirements.

The Federal Reserve:

  • It sets the fraction of deposits a bank must keep in reserve.
  • The primary reason for this authority is to ensure the stability of banks and to facilitate check clearing.
Money supply control:
  • The Federal Reserve can ease money creation by reducing reserve requirements.
  • It can also make money creation more difficult by increasing reserve requirements.

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AGGREGATE DEMAND DETERMINANTS

An assortment of ceteris paribus factors other than the price level that affect aggregate demand, but which are assumed constant when the aggregate demand curve is constructed. Changes in any of the aggregate demand determinants cause the aggregate demand curve to shift. The specific ceteris paribus factors are commonly grouped by the four, broad expenditure categories--consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports.

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A thousand years before metal coins were developed, clay tablet "checks" were used as money by the Babylonians.
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