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WORLD BANK: (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) An agency of the United Nations that was established in 1945 to promote the economic development of the poorer nations in the world. They pursue this goal by providing low-interest loans to less development countries and offering technical assistance on the best ways to use these loans. Funds for the loans are obtained by the World Bank by selling bonds on the world's financial markets. It's long-run economic development orientation is usually coordinated with the shorter-run efforts of its sister U. N. agency, the International Monetary Fund.

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Lesson 19: Money Creation | Unit 2: Fred Returns Page: 7 of 23

Topic: Paper Loans <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Elizabeth needs a loan, but she doesn't want gold, she wants receipts, she wants money.Remember that:
  • Fred issues receipts only for deposits.
  • Can he just issue receipts?Two options:
  • One: Fred can loan gold from his safe, which Elizabeth can deposit for receipts.
  • Two: Fred can loan Elizabeth the receipts directly. Note that:
  • With both, Elizabeth ends up with receipts and Fred ends up with the same amount of gold in his safe.
  • With both, receipts are not all backed by gold: The loan increases the number of receipts in circulation.Fractional-reserve banking:
  • If every receipt is redeemed, then Fred is in trouble.
  • But Fred knows that only a fraction of the gold is redeemed at any given time.

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AVERAGE FACTOR COST CURVE

A curve that graphically represents the relation between average factor cost incurred by a firm for employing an input and the quantity of input used. Because average factor cost is essentially the price of the input, the average factor cost curve is also the supply curve for the input. The average factor cost curve for a firm with no market control is horizontal. The average revenue curve for a firm with market control is positively sloped.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at the confiscated property police auction looking to buy either a set of luggage with wheels or a birthday gift for your aunt. Be on the lookout for malfunctioning pocket calculators.
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Woodrow Wilson's portrait adorned the $100,000 bill that was removed from circulation in 1929. Woodrow Wilson was removed from circulation in 1924.
"Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly and get on with improving your other innovations. "

-- Steve Jobs, Apple Computer founder

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