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AGGREGATE DEMAND: The total (or aggregate) real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers would willing and able to make at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand (AD) is one half of the aggregate market analysis; the other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand, relates the economy's price level, measured by the GDP price deflator, and aggregate expenditures on domestic production, measured by real gross domestic product. The aggregate expenditures are consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports made by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign).

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Lesson 2: Economic Science | Unit 3: Verification Page: 10 of 20

Topic: Evaluation <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Ceteris Paribus Assumption:
In order to test an hypothesis we need to keep constant other factors that may affect it. Other things are called ceteris paribus factors.

The last step in the process is to evaluate the hypothesis. We have two possibilities-data and hypothesis agree-- data and hypothesis don't agree.

The data and hypothesis agree.

  • Because we can not prove an absolute, this possibility gives us support for the hypothesis, but not absolute proof that it is correct.
  • To get a proof, we need to test the hypothesis many times under several different conditions. But even then, we can not be 100%, absolutely certain.
  • With growing certainty of the validity of the hypothesis, it becomes a principle and is added to the theory for an expanded theory.

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TWO-SECTOR INJECTIONS-LEAKAGES MODEL

A variation of the Keynesian injections-leakages model that includes the two private sectors, the household sector and the business sector. This variation, often termed the saving-investment model or private sector injections-leakages model, captures the interaction between induced saving (and indirectly induced consumption expenditures) and autonomous investment expenditures. This model provides an alternative to the two-sector aggregate expenditures (Keynesian cross) analysis of the macroeconomy, including equilibrium, disequilibrium, and the multiplier. Equilibrium is identified as the intersection between the saving line and the investment line. Two related variations are the three-sector injections-leakages model and the four-sector injections-leakages model.

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During the American Revolution, the price of corn rose 10,000 percent, the price of wheat 14,000 percent, the price of flour 15,000 percent, and the price of beef 33,000 percent.
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