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October 18, 2018 

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KEMP-ROTH ACT: Officially titled the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, this was a cornerstone of economic policy under President Reagan. The three components of this act were: (1) a decrease in individual income taxes, phased in over three years, (2) a decrease in business taxes, primarily through changes in capital depreciation, and (3) the indexing of taxes to inflation, which was implemented in 1985. This act was intended to address the stagflation problems of high unemployment and high inflation that existed during that 1970s and to provide greater incentives for investment. A primary theoretical justification is found in the Laffer curve relation between tax rates and total tax collections.

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Lesson 20: Federal Reserve System | Unit 3: The Fed Pyramid Page: 11 of 20

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  • The structure of the Fed, which is composed of: (a) Chairman of the Board of governors, (b) Board of Governors, (c) Federal Reserve Banks, (d) commercial banks, and (e) the non-bank public.
  • That the Board of Governors is the policy making body of the Fed, which sets the regulations, rules and policies affecting the money supply and the commercial banking system.
  • That the Fed is largely independent of the President and Congress.
  • The Federal Open Market Committee, which is responsible for monetary policy.
  • The Federal Advisory Council, which is totally advisory, does not set policy nor impose regulations.
  • That there are 37 Federal Reserve Banks responsible for implementing the policies and regulations of the Board of Governors.
  • Commercial banks that form the base of the Federal Reserve pyramid.

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AUTONOMOUS SAVING

Household saving that does not depend on income or production (especially disposable income, national income, or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in saving. Autonomous saving is best thought of as a baseline level of saving (usually negative) that the household sector undertakes in the unlikely event that income falls to zero. It is measured by the intercept term of the saving function or the saving line. The alternative to autonomous saving is induced saving, which does depend on income.

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Woodrow Wilson's portrait adorned the $100,000 bill that was removed from circulation in 1929. Woodrow Wilson was removed from circulation in 1924.
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