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YIELD TO MATURITY: The annual rate of return on a financial asset that is held until maturity. Yield to maturity depends on both the coupon rate and the face or par value paid at maturity. If the selling price of a financial asset is equal to its par value, then the yield to maturity is equal to the current yield and the coupon rate. However, if the asset is selling at a discount, then the yield to maturity exceeds the current yield, which is greater than the coupon rate. And if the asset is selling at a premium, then the yield to maturity is less than the current yield, which is below than the coupon rate.

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Lesson 20: Federal Reserve System | Unit 4: Monetary Policy Page: 14 of 20

Topic: Open Market Operations <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Open market operations are the most important tool of monetary policy.
  • The Federal government budget deficit is financed by issuing or selling U.S. Treasury Securities, which are traded through the open market.
  • Banks, corporations, government agencies, pension funds and regular people are the buyers and sellers in this 'open market' for Treasury Securities.
  • Treasury Securities are low risk investments.

Two major players in the open market:

  • Commercial Banks: They use secure investments to ensure bank stability.
  • Federal Reserve: They buy and sell treasury securities with the expressed goal of manipulating bank reserves and the money supply.

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INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE

A given proportional change in all resources in the long run results in a proportional greater change in production. Increasing returns to scale exists if a firm increases ALL resources--labor, capital, and other inputs--by a given proportion (say 10 percent) and output increases by more than this proportion (that is more than 10 percent). This is one of three returns to scale. The other two are decreasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale.

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