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DEMAND-DRIVEN BUSINESS CYCLES: Business cycle instability caused by changes in one or more of the four aggregate demand expenditures on gross domestic product--consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports. This is one of two basic types of business cycles; the other being supply-drive business cycle. Demand-driven business cycles tend to be the more common of the two types. In general, demand-driven business cycles are more responsible for short-term instability, while supply-driven business cycles tend to be more closely associated with long-run changes in the economy.

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Lesson 20: Federal Reserve System | Unit 2: What It Does Page: 5 of 20

Topic: Instability <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

The United States had two attempts at central banking in the late 1700s and early 1800s. From 1836 to 1913, a period marked by perpetual economic turmoil, the United States had no central bank.

With no central bank:

  • Banks played fast and loose with deposits and loans.
  • They came up short of reserves and were forced to shut down, taking deposits with them.
  • When deposits evaporated, so too did the financial wealth of customers and part of the money supply.
  • Bank closings were seldom isolated events, bank panics usually spread rapidly throughout the economy.
  • Without money, production went unsold and resources were unemployed.

  • The Federal Reserve System was established in 1913. although imperfect, it has helped stabilize the economy.

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BUYERS' MARKET

A disequilibrium condition in a competitive market that has a surplus or excess supply. Because the quantity supplied is greater than the quantity demanded, buyers have the "upper hand" when negotiating. A market surplus also goes by the more common term of buyers' market. The alternative to a buyers' market is a sellers' market, which has a shortage or excess demand.

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RED AGGRESSERINE
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers looking to buy either a remote controlled World War I bi-plane or a wall poster commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from former employers.
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One of the largest markets for gold in the United States is the manufacturing of class rings.
"The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet."

-- Aristotle, philosopher

SAFEX
South African Futures Exchange
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