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IMPORT QUOTA: A limit on the importation of a particular good brought into one country from another country. An import quota, for example, would stipulate something like only X million pounds of swiss cheese can be imported into the United States from Switzerland each year. Such import quotas are a popular type of nontariff barrier imposed by countries throughout the world, competing with tariffs as the number one trade restriction. The general justification for import quotas is to protect domestic firms and industries from unfair competition by foreign companies. While this can be needed, import quotas are frequently used by oligopoly firms, with significant political influence to limit competition and maintain market control.

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Lesson 5: Demand | Unit 1: Buying Basics Page: 4 of 20

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  • Demand as the range of prices and quantities that buyers are willing and able to buy at different prices.
  • Why buyers must be both willing and able to buy a good to have a demand. Willingness is based on tastes and preferences. Ability is based on income.
  • Why demand includes a range of prices and quantities, not just a specific quantity.
  • Why demand is analyzed during a given time period.
  • Demand price as the maximum price that buyers would be willing and able to pay for a given quantity.
  • Quantity demanded as the maximum quantity buyers would be willing and able to buy at a specific price.


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MARGINAL COST

The change in total cost (or total variable cost) resulting from a change in the quantity of output produced by a firm in the short run. Marginal cost (MC) indicates how much total cost changes for a given change in the quantity of output. Because changes in total cost are matched by changes in total variable cost in the short run (total fixed cost is fixed), marginal cost is the change in either total cost or total variable cost. It is found by dividing the change in total cost (or total variable cost) by the change in output. Marginal cost is one of four cost concepts used in short-run production analysis. The other three are average total cost, average fixed cost, and average variable cost.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale trying to buy either a how-to book on the art of negotiation or a flower arrangement for your aunt. Be on the lookout for poorly written technical manuals.
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The first "Black Friday" on record, a friday marked by a major financial catastrophe, occurred on September 24, 1869 -- A FRIDAY -- when an attempted cornering of the gold market induced a financial crises and economy-wide depression.
"If I'm selecting a group, the first thing I look for is a record of achievement . . . If (candidates achieve) in small things, there's a very good chance they'll perform well in big things. "

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