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AGGREGATE DEMAND DETERMINANTS: An assortment of ceteris paribus factors that affect aggregate demand, but which are assumed constant when the aggregate demand curve is constructed. Changes in any of the aggregate demand determinants cause the aggregate demand curve to shift. While a wide variety of specific ceteris paribus factors can cause the aggregate demand curve to shift, it's usually most convenient to group them into the four, broad expenditure categories -- consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports. The reason is that changes in these expenditures are the direct cause of shifts in the aggregate demand curve. If any determinant affects aggregate demand it MUST affect one of these four expenditures.

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Lesson 5: Demand | Unit 2: Law of Demand Page: 8 of 20

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  • The law of demand, which is a fundamental economic principle stating that demand price and quantity demanded are inversely related, ceteris paribus.
  • Ceteris paribus, a Latin term meaning that other things remain unchanged. It is used to control for factors other than price, that affect demand.
  • Why the law of demand works because of the income and substitution effects.
  • The income effect, which exists because price changes affect the purchasing power of buyers' given incomes.
  • The substitution effect, which exists because price changes make other goods relatively more or less expensive.


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BALANCE OF TRADE SURPLUS

The positive difference of the value of goods and services exported out of a country less the value of goods and services imported into the country. A balance of trade surplus is the official term for positive net exports that occurs when exports exceed imports. A balance of trade surplus is also termed a "favorable" balance of trade because it results in a net inflow of monetary payments into the domestic economic from the foreign sector, which tends to be beneficial to a country. The alternative is a balance of trade deficit in which imports exceed exports.

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