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VALUE-ADDED TAX: A tax on the extra value added during each stage in the production of a good. Most of the stuff our economy produces goes through several "stages," usually with different businesses. In each stage, resources do their thing to the good to make it a little more valuable. For example, an ice cream store can take 50 cents worth of ice cream, fudge, and whipped topping and turn it into a hot fudge sundae that's valued at $1.50. The efforts of the ice cream resources thus add $1 in value. A value-added tax is based on this extra value. While it's been debated off and on in the United States, a value-added tax is commonly used in Europe.

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Lesson 7: Market | Unit 5: The Method Page: 18 of 22

Topic: Efficient Markets <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Rethinking demand and supply curves indicates efficiency of markets.

Market equilibrium has:

  • Equality between quantity demanded and quantity supplied.
  • Equality between demand price and supply price.
  • Equality between demand price and supply price means that the satisfaction obtained from the good produced is equal to the opportunity cost of production.
  • This equality between prices also means that the value of the good produced is equal to the value of goods not produced.

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AGGREGATE MARKET SHOCKS

Disruptions of the equilibrium in the aggregate market (or AS-AD model) caused by shifts of the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, or long-run aggregate supply curves. Shocks of the aggregate market are associated with, and thus used to analyze, assorted macroeconomic phenomena such as business cycles, unemployment, inflation, stabilization policies, and economic growth. The specific analysis of aggregate market shocks identifies changes in the price level (GDP price deflator) and real production (real GDP). Changes in the price level and real production have direct implications for the unemployment rate, the inflation rate, national income, and a host of other macroeconomic measures.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching the newspaper want ads wanting to buy either a wall poster commemorating the 2000 Presidential election or a rechargeable flashlight. Be on the lookout for bottles of barbeque sauce that act TOO innocent.
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Helping spur the U.S. industrial revolution, Thomas Edison patented nearly 1300 inventions, 300 of which came out of his Menlo Park "invention factory" during a four-year period.
"There comes a time when the mind takes a higher plane of knowledge but can never prove how it got there. "

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