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TAX AVOIDANCE: A legal reduction in taxes. The complexity of our system of taxes, especially income taxes, makes it extremely worthwhile to identify the mix of spending, working, and assorted activities that reduce taxes. This has also created a major industry of accountants, lawyers, educators, public speakers, and others who spend their efforts uncovering legal tax loopholes. In terms of the big efficiency picture, this is a waste of resources. Our lives would, in general, be better off if this tax avoidance industry devoted it's efforts to increasing gross domestic product rather than diverting it from one pocket to another. This, though, is not a fault of theirs, but of the tax system itself.

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Lesson 7: Market | Unit 5: The Method Page: 21 of 22

Topic: Inefficiency <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Inefficient use of resources can result from:
  • The fourth rule of competition-with less competition buyers or sellers control the price. The quantity is too little and the demand price is greater than the supply price.
  • The seventh rule of complexity-costs or benefits external to the market (externalities) cause differences between the value of goods produced and goods not produced, even though market demand and supply prices are equal.
  • The fifth rule of imperfection-markets are not perfect.
    • Scarcity implies the lack of competition.
    • Complexity implies externalities.
Efficiency is a goal, not a perpetual state of the world.

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AGGREGATE MARKET SHOCKS

Disruptions of the equilibrium in the aggregate market (or AS-AD model) caused by shifts of the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, or long-run aggregate supply curves. Shocks of the aggregate market are associated with, and thus used to analyze, assorted macroeconomic phenomena such as business cycles, unemployment, inflation, stabilization policies, and economic growth. The specific analysis of aggregate market shocks identifies changes in the price level (GDP price deflator) and real production (real GDP). Changes in the price level and real production have direct implications for the unemployment rate, the inflation rate, national income, and a host of other macroeconomic measures.

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RED AGGRESSERINE
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching infomercials hoping to buy either a flower arrangement with daisies and carnations for your uncle or a coffee cup commemorating next Thursday. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from former employers.
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General Electric is the only stock from the original 1896 Dow Jones Industrial Average remaining in the current index.
"There is no point at which you can say, „Well, I'm successful now. I might as well take a nap.¾"

-- Carrie Fisher, actress, writer

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