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YIELD: The rate of return on a financial asset. In some simple cases, the yield on a financial asset, like commercial paper, corporate bond, or government security, is the asset's interest rate. However, as a more general rule, the yield includes both the interest earned from an asset plus any changes in the asset's price. Suppose, for example, that a $100,000 bond has a 10 percent interest rate, such that the holder receives $10,000 interest per year. If the price of the bond increases over the course of the year from $100,000 to $105,000, then the bond's yield is greater than 10 percent. It includes the $10,000 interest plus the $5,000 bump in the price, giving a yield of 15 percent. Because bonds and similar financial assets often have fixed interest payments, their prices and subsequently yields move up and down as economic conditions change.

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Lesson 1: Economic Basics | Unit 4: Goals Page: 11 of 18

Topic: Economic Goals <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

The three macro goals are most important in the study of the macroeconomics:

  • Full employment: This is when all available resources (labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship) are used to produce goods and services. It enables more production that can reduce the scarcity problem.
  • Stability: This is avoiding or limiting fluctuations in production, employment, and prices. It reduces uncertainty of the future.
  • Growth: This is increasing the economy's ability to produce goods and services. It improves living standards and better addresses the scarcity problem.

The two micro goals are most important in the study of the microeconomics:

  • Efficiency: This is getting the highest amount of satisfaction from available resources. Efficiency is achieved when society cannot change the distribution of resources in any way that would increase the total amount of satisfaction obtained by society.
  • Equity: This is the fairness with which income or wealth is distributed within a society. Equity occurs when income or wealth is fairly distributed. But the standards of fairness differ and puts us into normative economics.

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LOSS MINIMIZATION RULE

A rule stating that a firm minimizes economic loss by producing output in the short run that equates marginal revenue and marginal cost if price is less than average total cost but greater than average variable cost. This is one of three short-run production alternatives facing a firm. The other two are profit maximization (if price exceeds average total cost) and shutdown (if price is less than average variable cost).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through mail order catalogs wanting to buy either a Boston Red Sox baseball cap or a square lamp shade with frills along the bottom. Be on the lookout for deranged pelicans.
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This isn't me! What am I?

Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland, was the pseudonym of Charles Dodgson, an accomplished mathematician and economist.
"Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things that you didn't do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines. Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover."

-- Mark Twain

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