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MARKET STRUCTURE: The manner in which a market is organized, based largely on the number of firms in the industry. The four basic market structure models are: perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly. The primary difference between each is the number of firms on the supply side of a market. Both perfect competition and monopolistic competition have a large number of relatively small firms selling output. Oligopoly has a small number of relatively large firms. And monopoly has a single firm.

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Lesson 1: Economic Basics | Unit 4: Goals Page: 12 of 18

Topic: Tradeoffs <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Pursuing one goal is usually at the expense of another, we have tradeoffs.

Three reasons for tradeoffs:

  • First, resources used to pursue one goal cannot be used to pursue another.
  • Second, actions that move us toward one goal can move us away from another.
  • Third, pursuing a goal may be good for some, but bad for others.
A thought:
  • Economists are inclined to stress efficiency more than others--but efficiency is only one of several goals.

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OVEREMPLOYMENT

The condition in which resources are more actively engaged in the production of goods and services than they are willing and able to at current prices. This condition is most important for short-run macroeconomic activity and short-run aggregate market analysis. In particular, overemployment is a key reason for the positive slope of the short-run aggregate supply curve. Overemployment is a primary reason the macroeconomy is able to produce MORE than full-employment production in the short run.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching the newspaper want ads seeking to buy either a travel case for you toothbrush or a looseleaf notebook binder. Be on the lookout for vindictive digital clocks with revenge on their minds.
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Approximately three-fourths of the U.S. paper currency in circular contains traces of cocaine.
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