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CAPITAL GAINS TAX: A tax on the difference between the sales price of a "capital" asset and it's original purchase price. The capital assets subject to this tax include such things real estate, stocks, and bonds. This tax is frequently a source of controversy between the second and third estates. In that the second estate owns and sells a lot of this sort of capital, they don't like to pay taxes on capital gains. However, because the third estate doesn't have much capital it seems like a pretty good thing to tax. Those who oppose the capital gains tax argue that it takes away funds that would be used for further capital investment, which thus inhibits economic growth. Those who favor it argue that helps equalize unfairly unequal income and wealth distributions.

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Lesson 1: Economic Basics | Unit 5: Policies Page: 14 of 18

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Because markets are imperfect, government is prompted to intervene with economic policies.
  • Economic policies are government actions designed to affect economic activity and pursue one or more economic goals.
Policies can take the form of:
  • Laws passed by legislatures.
  • Administrative actions taken by elected executives.
  • Rules set forth by government agencies.
  • Decisions made through the courts.
The government has four types of policies.
  • Fiscal policy: Based on government's power to collect taxes from the public and spend those funds as it chooses. Used for income redistribution and macroeconomic performance.
  • Monetary policy: Based on government's centralized control of the money supply. Used for macroeconomic performance.
  • Regulatory policy: Based on government's ability to enact laws, rules and restrictions. Used for efficiency and equity
  • Judicial policy: Based on government's ability to enforce laws through the courts. Used for efficiency and equity

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DISECONOMIES OF SCALE

Increasing long-run average cost that occurs as a firm increases all inputs and expands its scale of production. Diseconomies of scale result from decreasing returns to scale and are graphically illustrated by a positively-sloped long-run average cost curve. Diseconomies of scale usually occur for relatively large levels of production and overwhelm economies of scale that occurs at relatively small production levels. Together, economies of scale and diseconomies of scale create a U-shaped long-run average cost curve.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at the confiscated property police auction hoping to buy either a computer that can play video games and burn DVDs or a black duffle bag with velcro closures. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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The word "fiscal" is derived from a Latin word meaning "moneybag."
"The greatest things ever done on Earth have been done little by little. "

-- William Jennings Bryan

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