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RETAINED EARNINGS: Officially termed undistributed corporate profits, these are corporate profits that are neither paid as corporate profits taxes nor paid to shareholders as dividends. Undistributed corporate profits are important for the derivation of personal income from national income. Because undistributed corporate profits are income that is earned by the shareholders, but not received, it falls in the general category of income earned but not received (IEBNR), and is subtracted from national income in the derivation of personal income.

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Lesson 1: Economic Basics | Unit 3: The Economy Page: 7 of 18

Topic: An Economy <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Because of the scarcity problem, we need a way to divide up what we have. This is accomplished by an economy.

An economy is a system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources, goods, and services that addresses the basic economic problem of scarcity and answers the three questions of allocation: What? How? For Whom?

Economies rely on markets and government to perform the allocation task.

The allocation processes involves the institutions of:

  • Markets allocate resources through voluntary choices made by people--buyers and sellers.
  • Government allocates resources through involuntary taxes, laws, restrictions, and regulations imposed on these people.
Both are important methods of allocation.

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AUTONOMOUS EXPENDITURES

Expenditures on aggregate production by the four macroeconomic sectors that do not depend on income or production (especially national income or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in these expenditures. Each of the four aggregate expenditures--consumption, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports--have an autonomous component. Autonomous expenditures are affected by the ceteris paribus aggregate expenditures determinants and are measured by the intercept term of the aggregate expenditures line. The alternative to autonomous expenditures are induced expenditures, expenditures which do depend on income.

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RED AGGRESSERINE
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching the newspaper want ads seeking to buy either an electric coffee pot with automatic shutoff or a brown leather attache case. Be on the lookout for neighborhood pets, especially belligerent parrots.
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In 1914, Ford paid workers who were age 22 or older $5 per day -- double the average wage offered by other car factories.
"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new. "

-- Albert Einstein, physicist

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