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VERIFICATION: The hypothesis-testing step of the scientific method. Once an hypothesis is derived from a theory, it must be compared with real world data. This is the verification step. This verification can lead to support or refutation of the hypothesis. Enough support enables a hypothesis to become a principle. Refutation calls into question the theory implying the hypothesis.

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Lesson 2: Economic Science | Unit 5: Cause and Effect Page: 17 of 20

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The purpose of science is to identify the fundamental, basic laws of nature that guide our every moves.
  • The purpose of the scientific method is to explain the world by identifying cause and effect.
  • For every action there is a consequence. And for every consequence there is a cause.
The first step is to identify cause and effect links is correlation:

  • Correlation. If event A causes event B, then event A is correlated with event B. But, correlation does not mean causation. Two events can be correlated, without one causing the other. Note the fallacy of false cause.
  • Time Proximity. Event A and event B must happen at about the same time.
  • Time Sequence. Event A must precede event B. If event B occurs first, then it can't be caused by event A.

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PRICE DISCRIMINATION

The act of selling the same good to different buyers for different prices that are not justified by different production costs. This is practiced by suppliers who have achieved some degree of market control, especially monopoly. Common examples of price discrimination are electricity rates, long-distance telephone charges, movie ticket prices, airplane ticket prices, and assorted child or senior citizen discounts. Price discrimination takes the form of one of three degrees: (1) first degree, in which each price is the maximum price that buyers are willing and able to pay, (2) second degree, in which price is based on the quantity sold, and (3) third degree, in which prices are based on an easily identifiable characteristic of the buyer.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching the shopping channel looking to buy either a flower arrangement for your aunt or a birthday greeting card for your uncle. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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Approximately three-fourths of the U.S. paper currency in circular contains traces of cocaine.
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