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VALUE ADDED: The increase in the value of a good at each stage of the production process. The value that's being increased is specifically the ability of a good to satisfy wants and needs either directly as a consumption good or indirectly as a capital good. A good that provides greater satisfaction has greater value. In essence, the whole purpose of production is to transform raw materials and natural resources that have relatively little value into goods and services that have greater value.

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Lesson 2: Economic Science | Unit 2: Theory Page: 7 of 20

Topic: Economic Theories <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Three common economic theories:
  • Markets theory: It helps us understand how and why prices change, shortages and surpluses occur, and markets are monopolized.
  • Aggregate Markets theory: It uses principles and concepts developed in the theory of markets, but adapts them to the study macroeconomic things like inflation, unemployment, national production, and business cycles.
  • Keynesian theory: Named after it's creator John Maynard Keynes, it was developed to explain high rates of unemployment and other economic conditions that existed during the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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ADVERSE SELECTION

An inefficient, bad, or adverse outcome of a market exchange that results because buyers and/or sellers make decisions based on asymmetric information. This commonly results in a market that exchanges a lesser quality good, what is termed the market for lemons. Two related problems resulting from asymmetric information are moral hazard and the principal-agent problem. Two methods of lessoning the problem of adverse selection are signalling and screening.

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