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FALLACY OF DIVISION: The logical fallacy of arguing that what is true for the whole is also true for the parts. In the study of economics, this takes the form of assuming that what works for the aggregate, or macroeconomy, also works for parts of the economy, such as households or businesses. The contrasting fallacy that you should check out is the fallacy of composition.

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Lesson 2: Economic Science | Unit 3: Verification Page: 9 of 20

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An hypothesis is a possible, even probable, scientific relationship. An hypotheses is a candidate to become a principle. Hypothesis must be tested before becoming principles.
  • A possible hypothesis: The distance between a passing car and a jogger depends on the driver's political philosophy.
  • Alternative hypotheses can also explain differences in distance between jogger and passing car.
An hypothesis that seems reasonable is not necessarily right. It must be verified with real world data.
  • The scientific method does not accept an explanation at face value. It needs to prove an explanation is correct.
  • Scientists check to see if a reasonable explanation is consistent with the data. The scientific process is all about verifying hypotheses.
  • To test our hypothesis, ask people about passing distance and political affiliation.
  • While subjective data, based on asking people, can be useful, objective methods of data collection are usually preferred. Let's use lasers.
  • Government is a fruitful source of objective data.

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MARGINAL UTILITY OF INCOME

The change in utility resulting from a given change in income. This is a specialized case of the general notion of marginal utility, which is simply the change in utility resulting from a given change in the consumption of a good. Marginal utility of income is key to identifying alternative risk preferences, including risk aversion, risk neutrality, and risk loving. These three risk preferences are indicated by three marginal utility of income possibilities, decreasing (risk aversion), increasing (risk loving), and constant (risk neutrality).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store seeking to buy either a rechargeable battery for your computer or shoe laces for your snow boots. Be on the lookout for deranged pelicans.
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John Maynard Keynes was born the same year Karl Marx died.
"Executives who get there and stay suggest solutions when they present the problems. "

-- Malcolm Forbes, business executive

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