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October 18, 2018 

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RECESSIONARY GAP, KEYNESIAN MODEL: The difference between equilibrium aggregate production achieved in the Keynesian model and full-employment aggregate production that occurs when equilibrium aggregate production is less than full-employment aggregate production. A recessionary gap, also termed a contractionary gap, is associated with a business-cycle contraction. The prescribed Keynesian remedy for a recessionary gap is expansionary fiscal policy. This is one of two alternative output gaps that can occur when equilibrium generates production that differs from full employment. The other is an inflationary gap.

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LORENZ CURVE: In general, a diagram illustrating the degree of inequality and concentration for a group. This is accomplished by plotting the cumulative percentage of a total amount obtained by cumulative percentages of the group. A common use of the Lorenz curve is the distribution of income, in which the cumulative percentage of income is measured on the vertical axis and the cumulative percentage of the population is measured on the horizontal axis. Perfect equality is indicated by a 45-degree line (that is, 10% of the population has 10% of the income, 20% of the population has 20% of the income, etc.). The actual Lorenz curve inevitably lies below the 45-degree line. The extent that the Lorenz curve differs from the 45-degree line indicates the extent of inequality.

     See also | income distribution | wealth distribution | Gini index | equity | third rule of inequality | distribution standards |


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SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET

A macroeconomic model relating the price level and real production under the assumption that SOME prices are inflexible, especially resource prices. This is one of two aggregate market submodels used to analyze business cycles, gross production, unemployment, inflation, stabilization policies, and related macroeconomic phenomena. The other is the long-run aggregate market. The short-run aggregate market isolates the interaction between aggregate demand and short-run aggregate supply. The key assumption of this model is that SOME prices, especially resource prices, are inflexible. The primary result of this model is that the economy can achieve short-run equilibrium at real production that is either greater than or less than full-employment.

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Post WWI induced hyperinflation in German in the early 1900s raised prices by 726 million times from 1918 to 1923.
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