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AGGREGATE: A common modifier for an assortment of economic terms used in the study of macroeconomics that signifies a comprehensive, often national, total value. This modifier most often surfaces in the study of the AS-AD, or "aggregate market", model of the economy with such terms as aggregate demand and aggregate supply. For example, aggregate demand indicates the total demand for production in the macroeconomy and aggregate supply indicates the total amount of that output produced. Two other noted "aggregate" terms are aggregate expenditures and aggregate production function.

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DISCRETIONARY FISCAL POLICY: Explicit changes in government purchases and/or taxes (fiscal policy) that are made with the expressed goal of stabilizing business cycles, reducing unemployment, and/or lowering inflation. While most fiscal policy studied in economics is discretionary, the contrast is with automatic stabilizers, changes in taxes and transfer payments the help stabilize business cycles without explicit government actions. Discretionary monetary policy is a similar type of policy.

     See also | discretionary | discretionary policy | business cycle | fiscal policy | discretionary monetary policy | monetary policy | stabilization policies | automatic stabilizers | inflation | unemployment |


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INJECTIONS-LEAKAGES MODEL

A macroeconomic model that balances non-consumption expenditures on production (injections) and non-consumption uses of income (leakages) that is used to identify the equilibrium level of, and analyze disruptions to, aggregate production and income. The injections-leakages model is based on the principles of Keynesian economics and provides an alternative to the standard aggregate expenditures (Keynesian cross) analysis. The three injections included in the model are investment expenditures, government purchases, and exports. The three leakages included in the model are saving, taxes, and imports. Three variations are the two-sector injections-leakages model (or saving-investment model), three-sector injections-leakages model, and four-sector injections-leakages model.

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Junk bonds are so called because they have a better than 50% chance of default, carrying a Standard & Poor's rating of CC or lower.
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