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SOCIAL SECURITY TAX: A tax on wage earnings that's used to fund the Social Security system. In principle, the Social Security tax is divided equally between employer and employee--your share is listed under the FICA heading of your paycheck. In practice, however, employees really end up paying both employee and employer contributes. The reason is that employers need to consider the entire cost of hiring an employee, including wages, fringe benefits, and assorted taxes. The more they pay in these nonwage items, like Social Security taxes, the less they pay in wages. In that the Social security tax is only on earnings, and excludes profit, interest, and rent, it tends to be a regressive tax.

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LAW OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE: A basic principle that states every nation has a production activity that incurs a lower opportunity cost than that of another nation, which means that trade between the two nations can be beneficial to both if each specializes in the production of a good with lower relative opportunity cost. While this law is fundamental to the study of international trade, it also applies to other activities, especially the specialization and the division of labor.

     See also | international economics | comparative advantage | absolute advantage | international trade | opportunity cost | specialization | division of labor | foreign sector | domestic sector | foreign trade | closed economy | open economy | exports | imports | net exports |


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LAW OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2017. [Accessed: August 23, 2017].


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LONG-RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE

A graphical representation of the long-run relation between real production and the price level, holding all ceteris paribus aggregate supply determinants constant. The long-run aggregate supply curve, abbreviated LRAS, is one of two curves that graphically capture the supply-side of the aggregate market. The other is the short-run aggregate supply curve. The demand-side of the aggregate market is occupied by the aggregate demand curve. The vertical long-run aggregate supply curve captures the independent relation between real production and the price level that exists in the long run.

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