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June 28, 2016 

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AGGREGATE MARKET SHOCKS: Disruptions of the equilibrium in the aggregate market (or AS-AD model) caused by shifts of the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, or long-run aggregate supply curves. Shocks of the aggregate market are associated with, and thus used to analyze, assorted macroeconomic phenomena such as business cycles, unemployment, inflation, stabilization policies, and economic growth. The specific analysis of aggregate market shocks identifies changes in the price level (GDP price deflator) and real production (real GDP). However, changes in the price level and real production have direct implications for the unemployment rate, the inflation rate, national income, and a host of other macroeconomic measures.

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LAW OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE: A basic principle that states every nation has a production activity that incurs a lower opportunity cost than that of another nation, which means that trade between the two nations can be beneficial to both if each specializes in the production of a good with lower relative opportunity cost. While this law is fundamental to the study of international trade, it also applies to other activities, especially the specialization and the division of labor.

     See also | international economics | comparative advantage | absolute advantage | international trade | opportunity cost | specialization | division of labor | foreign sector | domestic sector | foreign trade | closed economy | open economy | exports | imports | net exports |


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LAW OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2016. [Accessed: June 28, 2016].


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ECONOMIES OF SCALE

Declining long-run average cost that occurs as a firm increases all inputs and expands its scale of production. Economies of scale result from increasing returns to scale and are graphically illustrated by a negatively-sloped long-run average cost curve. Economies of scale usually occur for relatively small levels of production and are then overwhelmed by diseconomies of scale for relatively large production levels. Together, economies of scale and diseconomies of scale create a U-shaped long-run average cost curve.

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State of the ECONOMY

Sales of New Single-Family Homes
November 2015
490,000 (seasonal adjusted annual rate)
Up 4.3% from October 2015 Source: Econ Stats Adm.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time waiting for visits from door-to-door solicitors hoping to buy either a wall poster commemorating the 2000 Presidential election or a rechargeable flashlight. Be on the lookout for strangers with large satchels of used undergarments.
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Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen were the 1st Nobel Prize winners in Economics in 1969.
"Concentration is the secret of strength in politics, in war, in trade, in short in all management of human affairs. "

-- Ralph Waldo Emerson, philosopher, poet

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