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October 19, 2018 

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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE: A principle of taxation in which taxes are based on the income or resource-ownership ability of people to pay the tax. The income tax collected by our friends at the Internal Revenue Service is one of the most common taxes that seeks to abide by the ability-to-pay principle. In theory, the income tax system is set up such that people with greater incomes pay more taxes. Proportional and progressive taxes follow this ability-to-pay principle, while regressive taxes, such as sales taxes and Social Security taxes, don't.

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MARGINAL TAX RATE: A tax rate that is the percentage of an incremental change in the tax base paid in taxes. Comparable to any marginal, this is the change in total taxes collected or paid divided by the change in the total value of the tax base. For example, if a person has a $10,000 increase in earnings from $40,000 to $50,000 and income taxes increase by $2,000 from $3,000 to $5,000 in taxes, then the marginal income tax rate is 20 percent. The contrasting term is average tax rate.

     See also | average tax rate | tax rate | tax base | tax incidence | tax proportionality | proportional tax | progressive tax | regressive tax | average-marginal rule |


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MARGINAL TAX RATE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: October 19, 2018].


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PREFERENCES CHANGE, UTILITY ANALYSIS

A disruption of consumer equilibrium identified with utility analysis caused by changes in the preferences for a good, which likely results in a change in the quantities of the goods consumed. The change in preferences alters the marginal utility-price ratio and forces a reevaluation of the rule of consumer equilibrium.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers trying to buy either a rechargeable battery for your cell phone or a T-shirt commemorating the 2000 Olympics. Be on the lookout for poorly written technical manuals.
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Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland, was the pseudonym of Charles Dodgson, an accomplished mathematician and economist.
"Think not of yourself as the architect of your career but as the sculptor. Expect to have to do a lot of hard hammering and chiseling and scraping and polishing. "

-- B. C. Forbes, founder, Forbes magazine

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