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January 20, 2019 

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ARBITRAGE: Buying something in one market then immediately (or as soon as possible) selling it in another market for (hopefully) a higher price. Arbitrage is a common practice in financial markets. For example, an aspiring financial tycoon might buy a million dollars worth of Japanese yen in the Tokyo foreign exchange market then resell it immediately in the New York foreign exchange market for more than a million dollars. Arbitrage of this sort does two things. First, it often makes arbitragers wealthy. Second, it reduces or eliminates price differences that exist between two markets for the same good.

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NO-RESERVE BANKING: A (hypothetical) method of banking in which banks keep 0 percent of their deposits in the form of bank reserves, meaning that ALL deposits are used for interest-paying loans. No-reserve banking is one of two theoretical alternatives designed to help illustrate a contrast to the fractional-reserve banking actually practiced by modern banks. The other alternative is full-reserve banking. With the no-reserve approach a bank operates as financial intermediary or broker, matching up borrowers and lenders.

     See also | banks | banking | fractional-reserve banking | full-reserve banking | reserves | traditional banks | savings and loan associations | credit unions | mutual savings banks | thrift institutions | excess reserves | legal reserves | required reserves | vault cash | Federal Reserve deposits |


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NO-RESERVE BANKING, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: January 20, 2019].


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MARKET FAILURES

Imperfections in the exchange process between buyers and sellers that prevent markets from efficiently allocating scarce resources. Market failures come in four varieties -- public goods, market control, externalities, and imperfect information. Market efficiency is achieved if the value of goods produced is equal to the value of foregone production. Markets fail when this efficiency condition is not achieved. Such failures can only be corrected by government intervention.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers hoping to buy either a replacement remote control for your stereo system or a computer that can play video games and burn DVDs. Be on the lookout for jovial bank tellers.
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