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EXCESS CAPACITY: A condition that exists when monopolistic competition achieves long-run equilibrium such that production by each firm is less than minimum efficient scale. The implication of this condition is that each firm is not producing up to its fullest capacity, as would be the case under perfect competition, and thus more firms are need to produce total market output compared to perfect competition. Excess capacity results because market control means a monopolistically competitive firm faces a negatively-sloped demand curve. Long-run equilibrium is thus achieved by the tangency of the negatively-sloped demand curve and the long-run average cost curve, which results in economies to scale.

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PERFECT COMPETITION, SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION ANALYSIS: A perfectly competitive firm produces the profit-maximizing quantity of output that equates marginal revenue and marginal cost. This production level can be identified using total revenue and cost, marginal revenue and cost, or profit. Because a perfectly competitive firm faces a perfectly elastic demand curve, it efficiently allocates resources by equating price and marginal cost. In addition, the marginal cost curve above the average variable cost curve is the perfectly competitive firm's short-run supply curve.

     See also | perfect competition, total analysis | perfect competition, marginal analysis | perfect competition, efficiency | perfect competition, short-run supply curve | perfect competition, breakeven output | perfect competition, profit analysis | short-run production alternatives | perfect competition, profit maximization | perfect competition, loss minimization |


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SECOND-DEGREE PRICE DISCRIMINATION

A form of price discrimination in which a seller charges different prices for different quantities of a good. This also goes by the name block pricing. Second-degree price discrimination is possible because decidedly different quantities are purchased by different types of buyers with different demand elasticities. This is one of three price discrimination degrees. The others are first-degree price discrimination and third-degree price discrimination.

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