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October 19, 2021 

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MAASTRICHT TREATY: An agreement among 12 European nations in 1992 that established the European Union. The 12 nations signing the Maastricht Treaty are Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, and Great Britain. This treaty was designed to form a more economically and politically integrated European economy, including the reduction or elimination of tariffs and nontariff barriers, the creation of monetary unit (the euro), the establishment of a common military and defense policy, and centralized monetary policy. This amended early agreements setting up a European common market. The Maastricht Treaty is merely one of several international trade agreements created over the years to reduce trade restrictions. Others include the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the North American Free Trade Agreement.

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ZERO-BASE BUDGET: A method of budgeting expenditures in which each expenditure is justified on its overall merits rather than being based on the budget for the previous year. A zero-base budget is most often proposed (but seldom implemented) for governments. Governments generally establish budget expenditures based on expenditures for the previous year. If, for example, budget expenditures last year were $100 billion, the requested budget for this year might be set at $110 billion. The existing $100 billion is a "given" and only the extra $10 billion is justified. With a zero-base budget, the entire $110 billion is justified.

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OLIGOPOLY AND MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION

Oligopoly and monopolistic competition have some similarities, but also have a few important differences. Both are examples of imperfect competition on the market structure continuum between ideals of perfect competition and monopoly. However, oligopoly contains a small number of large firms and monopolistic competition contains a large number of small firms. The dividing line between oligopoly and monopolistic competition can be blurred due to the number of firms in the industry.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time going from convenience store to convenience store trying to buy either storage boxes for your summer clothes or 500 feet of coaxial cable. Be on the lookout for defective microphones.
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Cyrus McCormick not only invented the reaper for harvesting grain, he also invented the installment payment for selling his reaper.
"Think not of yourself as the architect of your career but as the sculptor. Expect to have to do a lot of hard hammering and chiseling and scraping and polishing. "

-- B. C. Forbes, founder, Forbes magazine

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