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YTM: The common abbreviation for yield to maturity, which is the annual rate of return on a financial asset that is held until maturity. Yield to maturity depends on both the coupon rate and the face or par value paid at maturity. If the selling price of a financial asset is equal to its par value, then the yield to maturity is equal to the current yield and the coupon rate. However, if the asset is selling at a discount, then the yield to maturity exceeds the current yield, which is greater than the coupon rate. And if the asset is selling at a premium, then the yield to maturity is less than the current yield, which is below than the coupon rate.

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Lesson 13: Aggregate Demand | Unit 3: The Curve Page: 15 of 22

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  • The basic setup, shape, and position of the aggregate demand curve on a graph. The AD curve shows the negative relationship between the price level and real GDP.
  • What causes the negative slope of the AD curve--namely: 1) the real-balance effect, 2) the interest-rate effect, and 3) the net-export effect.
  • Why the real-balance effect means that a higher (or lower) price level reduces (or increases) the purchasing power of money, resulting in less (or more) real production purchased.
  • Why the interest-rate effect means that a higher (or lower) price level leads to higher (or lower) interest rates and thus a higher (or lower) cost of borrowing which decreases (or increases) consumption and investment expenditures on real production.
  • Why the net-export effect means that a higher (or lower) price level decreases (or increases) exports and increases (or decreases) imports thus decreasing (or increasing) net export expenditures on real production.

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MERGER

The consolidation of two or more separately-owned businesses under single ownership. Mergers fall into one of three classes--(1) horizontal between firms that sell competing products in the same market, (2) vertical between firms in different stages of the production of one good, and (3) conglomerate between firms that are in separate industries. Because horizontal mergers tend to reduce competition, they are most likely to be scrutinized by government. Mergers are one of several behavioral inclinations of oligopoly. A related oligopolistic behavior is collusion.

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