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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE: A principle of taxation in which taxes are based on the income or resource-ownership ability of people to pay the tax. The income tax collected by our friends at the Internal Revenue Service is one of the most common taxes that seeks to abide by the ability-to-pay principle. In theory, the income tax system is set up such that people with greater incomes pay more taxes. Proportional and progressive taxes follow this ability-to-pay principle, while regressive taxes, such as sales taxes and Social Security taxes, don't.

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Lesson 7: Market | Unit 1: The Exchange Page: 5 of 22

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  • The concept of markets as voluntary trades among buyers and sellers that is used to address the scarcity problem.
  • Four key points about markets:
    • They combine demand and supply.
    • They trade goods, services, and resources.
    • They are voluntary.
    • They are analyzed over a give time period.
  • Examples of different markets, ranging from a formal, organized stock market to a less formal, less organized rummage sale.
  • The nature of market equilibrium as a balance of the forces of demand and supply.
  • How market equilibrium is indicated by the equilibrium quantity and equilibrium price.
  • The importance of competition to the efficient operation of markets and how the number of participants determines competition among buyers and sellers.


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AGGREGATE DEMAND CURVE

A graphical representation of the relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level, holding all ceteris paribus aggregate demand determinants constant. The aggregate demand (AD) curve is one side of the graphical presentation of the aggregate market. The other side is occupied by the long-run aggregate supply curve and/or the short-run aggregate supply curve. The negative slope of the aggregate demand curve captures the inverse relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level. This negative slope is attributable to the interest-rate, real-balance, and net-export effects.

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APLS

BLUE PLACIDOLA
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers looking to buy either a rim for your spare tire or decorative celebrity figurines. Be on the lookout for fairy dust that tastes like salt.
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This isn't me! What am I?

In the early 1900s around 300 automobile companies operated in the United States.
"Man is born to live, not to prepare for life. "

-- Boris Pasternak, writer

DIDMCA
Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act
A PEDestrian's Guide
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