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September 19, 2021 

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COIN: A shiny metal disc, almost always authorized by a national government entity, with a raised impression of famous dead people on one side and a building or birds on the other that is used as money. U.S. coins are issued by the U.S. Treasury Department and come in denominations of pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, half-dollars, and dollars. At one time, metal coins were comprised of valuable metal (that is, commodity money) in an amount equivalent to their face value. A dime had 10-cents worth of silver. A nickel had 5-cents worth of nickel. A penney had 1-cents worth of copper. Most modern coins, however, are fiat money, containing less valuable metal alloys. But they work just fine in vending machines.

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Lesson 19: Money Creation | Unit 5: Policy Page: 21 of 23

Topic: Reserve Ratio <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Government controls money creation through two methods, one is reserve requirements.

The Federal Reserve has been given the authority over reserve requirements.

The Federal Reserve:

  • It sets the fraction of deposits a bank must keep in reserve.
  • The primary reason for this authority is to ensure the stability of banks and to facilitate check clearing.
Money supply control:
  • The Federal Reserve can ease money creation by reducing reserve requirements.
  • It can also make money creation more difficult by increasing reserve requirements.

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LOGROLLING

The trading of votes to ensure a favorable outcome for two or more separate decisions. Logrolling occurs when each of two people agree to vote for the other's project to ensure that both are passed. A votes for B and B votes for A. Logrolling is commonly used when neither decision is able to obtain the necessary majority of the votes needed for passage on their own accord. Explicit logrolling is when each of two voters agree to cast separate votes for two separate programs. Implicit logrolling is when two separate programs or policies are combined into a single package, which is then subject to a single vote. Logrolling can generate either an efficient or an inefficient allocation of resources, meaning that efficiency is irrelevant to the logrolling process.

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RED AGGRESSERINE
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a flea market trying to buy either a 200-foot blue garden hose or a video camera with stop action features. Be on the lookout for letters from the Internal Revenue Service.
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North Carolina supplied all the domestic gold coined for currency by the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia until 1828.
"When you play, play hard; when you work, don't play at all. "

-- Theodore Roosevelt, 26th US president

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Mean Square Error
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