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WELFARE: An assortment of programs that provide assistance to the poor. The cornerstone of our welfare system is Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), which was created by the Social Security Act (1935). It provides cash benefits to assist needy families with children under the age of 18. Funding comes partly from the federal government and partly from states. Because states also administer their own programs, benefits and qualification criteria differ from state to state. A second part of the welfare system, one that's run entirely by the federal government, is Supplemental Security Income (SSI). This program provides cash benefits to elderly, blind, and disabled in addition to any benefits received through the Social Security system. Our welfare system includes a whole bunch of additional benefits, including Medicaid, food stamps, low-cost housing, school lunches, job training, day care, and earned-income tax credits.

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Lesson 2: Economic Science | Unit 2: Theory Page: 6 of 20

Topic: Abstraction <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Economic theories are abstractions of the real world.

Three ways to abstract:
  • Words. The earliest human method of abstraction was to represent objects with words. Words also represent ideas. But words can have different meanings.
  • Graphs. Pictures, especially graphical pictures. Many economic theories are abstractly represented with graphs. A picture or graph can be less confusing that words.
  • Equations. Graphs are two-dimensional pictures of mathematical equations. Economic theories are often abstractly represented by equations. Equations can represent relationships between three or more things, like that for X, Y and Z:
Y = 3 + 2X - 4Z

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FEDERAL OPEN MARKET COMMITTEE

A committee of the Federal Reserve Board that is charged with conducting open market operations and is more generally responsible for guiding monetary policy. It is comprised of the 7 members of the Board of Governors and the Presidents of 5 Federal Reserve District Banks. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meets about eight times a years, on average every six weeks, usually on a Tuesday, to set the course of monetary policy. The Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board is also the Chairman of the FOMC. The President of the New York Federal Reserve Bank is always on this committee and is invariably selected as the Vice Chairman of the FOMC.

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BEIGE MUNDORTLE
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the downtown area trying to buy either a revolving spice rack or a how-to book on home repairs. Be on the lookout for the last item on a shelf.
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There were no banks in colonial America before the U.S. Revolutionary War. Anyone seeking a loan did so from another individual.
"The vacuum created by failure to communicate will quickly be filled with rumor, misrepresentations, drivel and poison. "

-- C. Northcote Parkinson, historian

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Functional Central Limit Theorem
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