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AGGREGATE DEMAND DETERMINANT: A ceteris paribus factor that affects aggregate demand, but which is assumed constant when the aggregate demand curve is constructed. Changes in any of the aggregate demand determinants cause the aggregate demand curve to shift. While a wide variety of specific ceteris paribus factors can cause the aggregate demand curve to shift, it's usually most convenient to group them into the four, broad expenditure categories -- consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports. The reason is that changes in these expenditures are the direct cause of shifts in the aggregate demand curve. If any determinant affects aggregate demand it MUST affect one of these four expenditures.

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Lesson 11: Circular Flow | Unit 2: Financial Markets Page: 10 of 22

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  • The main function of financial markets, which is to divert national income from household consumption to business investment.
  • The difference between the real or physical side of the economy (the production of goods that satisfy wants and needs) and the paper or financial side (legal claims on or ownership of physical resources, goods, and production).
  • How income is diverted from legal-claim buyer to legal-claim seller through the financial markets.
  • Why saving can be thought as a nonconsumption use of income, as making a loan, or as supplying income to the financial markets in exchange for a legal claim.
  • Two basic reasons to save: (1) in return for an interest payment or (2) to accumulate income that can be spent later.
  • Investment, which is business sector expenditures on gross domestic product for capital goods.
  • How the business sector borrows income through financial markets and uses this income flow to finance capital investment.
  • Why adding saving, investment, and financial markets does not change the total volume of the circular flow.
  • That imbalances between saving and investment trigger economic stability, business cycles, unemployment, and inflation.

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FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS

A network of 37 government banking institutions that are part of the U.S. Federal Reserve System and are responsible for supervising, regulating, and interacting with commercial banks and carrying out the policies established by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors. Federal Reserve Banks are often termed bankers' banks in that they provide banking services to commercial banks. The 37 separate banks--12 District Banks and 25 Branch Banks--spread across the country are what help make the Federal Reserve System a decentralized central bank.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time lost in your local discount super center wanting to buy either a coffee cup commemorating last Friday (you know why) or a wall poster commemorating the first day of spring. Be on the lookout for the happiest person in the room.
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Two and a half gallons of oil are needed to produce one automobile tire.
"Man is born to live, not to prepare for life. "

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