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HOMOGENEOUS OF DEGREE ONE: A property of an equation the exists if independent variables are increased by a constant value, then the dependent variable is increased by the same value. In other words, if the independent variables are doubled, then the dependent variable is also doubled. This property often surfaces in the analysis of production functions. A production function homogeneous of degree one is said to have constant returns to scale.

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Lesson 4: Production Possibilities | Unit 5: Investment Page: 19 of 24

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Investment is the tradeoff between consumption goods used for current satisfaction and capital goods that expand future productive capabilities.
  • Investment is not just putting money into the stock market. Investment is giving up current satisfaction to obtain greater future production, usually seen as giving up consumption goods to produce capital goods.
  • Education and human capital that increase the productive skills and ability of labor.
  • Exploration for mineral or fossil fuel deposits that add to land resources.
  • Scientific research that expands technology and resource quality.
  • The downside of investment is risk. There is no guarantee that you'll get something tomorrow.
Let's consider this basic tradeoff between capital and consumption.
  • Capital and consumption are the two basic types of goods needed for investment. If we produce more calibrators (capital), then we give up some jogging shoes (consumption).
  • This tradeoff IS the fundamental act of investment. In the graph to the right, if we move from bundle A to E to I, we are giving up jogging shoes and getting calibrators.
We are investing!

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PARADOX OF THRIFT

The notion that an increase in saving, which is generally good advice for an individual during bad economic times, can actually worsen the macroeconomy causing a reduction in aggregate income, production, and paradoxically a decrease in saving. The paradox of thrift is an example of the fallacy of composition stating that what is true for the part is not necessarily true for the whole.

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