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KALDOR-HICKS IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if the willingness to pay of those benefiting exceed the willingness to accept of those harmed. In other words, if those gains exceed those losses, or the benefits exceed the costs, then social welfare is improved and undertaking the action provides a net benefit to society. In other words, the winners can, in principle, compensate the losers for their loss, and still come out ahead. The actual compensation, however, is required. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Pareto improvement.

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Lesson 8: Market Shocks | Unit 1: Adjustments Page: 3 of 20

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  • The market model as a tool to understand our economic world, specifically to see how markets move, or adjust, from one equilibrium to another.
  • The three basic questions about market changes: What causes the shock? What are the consequences of the shock? Is the shock good or bad?


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BALANCE OF TRADE DEFICIT

The negative difference of the value of goods and services exported out of a country less the value of goods and services imported into the country. A balance of trade deficit is the official term for negative net exports that occurs when imports exceed exports. A balance of trade deficit is also termed an "unfavorable" balance of trade because it results in a net outflow of monetary payments from the domestic economic to the foreign sector, which tends to be bad for a country. The alternative is a balance of trade surplus in which exports exceed imports.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale seeking to buy either decorative garden figurines or a wall poster commemorating last Friday (you know why). Be on the lookout for strangers with large satchels of used undergarments.
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Sixty percent of big-firm executives said the cover letter is as important or more important than the resume itself when you're looking for a new job
"When you play, play hard; when you work, don't play at all. "

-- Theodore Roosevelt, 26th US president

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