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HORIZONTAL MERGER: The consolidation under a single ownership of two separately-owned businesses in the same industry. An example of a horizontal merger would be two soft drink companies merging to form a single firm. A horizontal merger should be contrasted with vertical merger--two firms in different stages of the production of one good, such that the output of one business is the input of the other; and conglomerate merger--two firms in totally, completely separate industries.

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Lesson 5: Market Demand | Unit 2: Law of Demand Page: 5 of 20

Topic: Definition <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

The law of demand is the basic principle underlying demand, one of our most important economic laws.

A definition:

The law of demand is an inverse relationship between demand price and the quantity demanded, ceteris paribus.

  • Inverse relationship means that people buy more of a good if the price is lower and less if the price is higher.
  • In terms of scientific method, price causes quantity demanded. A change in the price causes a change in the quantity demanded.
Ceteris paribus is important to the law of demand.
  • Ceteris paribus means other things remain unchanged.
  • Law of demand applies exclusively to the relationship between demand price and quantity demanded.
  • All other things that can affect demand must remain constant to avoid distorting this relationship.
  • Because demand is affected by many factors other than price, a buyer may buy larger amounts of a good even with a higher price.
  • Other factors that affect demand are called demand determinants.

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MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO INVEST

The change in business investment expenditures induced by a change in income or production (national income or gross domestic product). The marginal propensity to invest (abbreviated MPI) is another term for the slope of the investment line and is calculated as the change in investment divided by the change in income or production. The MPI plays a role in Keynesian economics. It augments the slope of the aggregate expenditures line and is part to the multiplier process. A related marginal measure is the marginal propensity to consume.

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The earliest known use of paper currency was about 1270 in China during the rule of Kubla Khan.
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