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MATURITY STAGE: The third stage in the product life cycle, characterized by flattening of sales and decreasing profit margins. Advertising and promotion are used to maintain market share and to prevent the erosion of sales and profits. During this stage, the initial decline of a product begins and many businesses try to "re-invent" their products to prevent the upcoming decline stage. Many times the company finds new uses for an existing product (baking soda as a deodorizer), totally new markets (foreign countries), or a way to enhance the existing product to make it better and to re-start the life cycle. The television has gone through at least two life cycles, first from black and white to color and then from color to high definition (HD) and plasma. Along the way there were enhancements such as remote control, VCRs to complement them, and cable to help with reception.

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Lesson 5: Market Demand | Unit 2: Law of Demand Page: 6 of 20

Topic: Income Effect <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

An important question is: Why does the law of demand work? Two reasons are income effect and substitution effect.

First, the income effect. This is the change in quantity demanded that results because a change in price gives a buyer more real income, even though money income remains unchanged.

  • The reason is that buyers have limited income.
  • Any change in price affects the purchasing power of buyers' limited income. A higher price means a given income can buy less and a lower price means a given income can buy more.

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KINKED-DEMAND CURVE ANALYSIS

An analysis using the kinked-demand curve to explain rigid prices often found with oligopoly. The kinked-demand curve contains two distinct segments--one for higher prices that is more elastic and one for lower prices that is less elastic. Key to this analysis is that the corresponding marginal revenue curve contains three segments--one associated with the more elastic segment, one associated with the less elastic segment, and one associated with the kink. A profit-maximizing firm can then equate marginal cost to a wide range of marginal revenue values along the vertical segment of the marginal revenue curve. This suggests that marginal cost must change significantly before an oligopolistic firm is inclined to change price.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at an auction wanting to buy either a set of luggage without wheels or a how-to book on wine tasting. Be on the lookout for slow moving vehicles with darkened windows.
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Helping spur the U.S. industrial revolution, Thomas Edison patented nearly 1300 inventions, 300 of which came out of his Menlo Park "invention factory" during a four-year period.
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