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AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES: A reduction in production cost the results when related firms locate near one another. Firms can be related as competitors in the same industry, by using the same inputs, or through providing output to the same demographic group. The fashion industry, for example, experiences agglomeration economies because they can share specialized inputs (photographers, models) that would be too expensive to employ full time. Retail stores have agglomeration economies when located in shopping malls because they have access to a large group of potential customers with lower advertising cost. Agglomeration economies is given as one of the primary reasons for the emergence of urban areas.

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Lesson 10: Gross Domestic Product | Unit 2: Looking Behind GDP Page: 8 of 25

Topic: Estimated Value <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Slice B includes economic production that does NOT involve market transactions.
  • The market value of nonmarket economic production for some goods can be estimated and included in GDP.
  • In-kind payments: This is nonmarketed production obtained by business owners or employees in lieu of money payment. Although no market transaction, GDP includes the estimated value of these transactions.
  • Owner-occupied housing: The value of owner-occupied housing services are not measured by market transaction. GDP includes the estimate the value of these services.

At least part of slice B is included in GDP.


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RATIONING

The distribution or allocation of a limited commodity, usually accomplished based on a standard or criterion. The two primary methods of rationing are markets and governments. Rationing is needed due to the scarcity problem. Because wants and needs are unlimited, but resources are limited, available commodities must be rationed out to competing uses.

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APLS

BLUE PLACIDOLA
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers looking to buy either a rim for your spare tire or decorative celebrity figurines. Be on the lookout for fairy dust that tastes like salt.
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This isn't me! What am I?

General Electric is the only stock from the original 1896 Dow Jones Industrial Average remaining in the current index.
"Man is born to live, not to prepare for life. "

-- Boris Pasternak, writer

RTA
Regional Trading Arrangement
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