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ACTIVIST POLICY: Government policies that involve explicit actions designed to achieve specific goals. A common type of activist policy is that designed to stabilize business cycles, reduce unemployment, and lower inflation, through government spending and taxes (fiscal policy) or the money supply (monetary policy). Activist policies are also term discretionary policies because they involve discretionary decisions by government. A contrast to activist policy is automatic stabilizers that help stabilize business cycles without explicit government actions.

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Lesson 3: Scarcity | Unit 3: Opportunity Cost Page: 9 of 17

Topic: The Concept <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

With limited resources and unlimited wants and needs, a lot of opportunities are forgone, a lot of alternatives can't be pursued. This is the idea of opportunity cost.

A definition:

  • Opportunity cost is the highest valued alternative foregone in the pursuit of an activity.
Three points related to this definition:
  • Foregone Alternative: Opportunity cost means NOT doing something else, not producing another good. Using resources to satisfy one want or need means they can't be used to satisfy another.
  • Highest Valued: Opportunity cost is all about giving up the best alternative possible, the most satisfying. Any activity has many alternatives. Opportunity cost is not all of these alternatives, only the most preferred, the highest valued.
  • Pursuit of an Activity: Using resources to produce goods that are consumed to satisfy wants and needs. The key economic activities foregone are production and consumption.

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OPEN ECONOMY

An economy that engages in international trade, especially one that exports goods and services to, and imports goods and services from, other economies that make up its foreign sector. It is "open" in the sense that goods and services flow into and out of the country. The alternative to an open economy is a closed economy, one that does not engage in international trade.

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BEIGE MUNDORTLE
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time browsing through a long list of dot com websites wanting to buy either a birthday greeting card for your father or a T-shirt commemorating the first day of spring. Be on the lookout for vindictive digital clocks with revenge on their minds.
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During the American Revolution, the price of corn rose 10,000 percent, the price of wheat 14,000 percent, the price of flour 15,000 percent, and the price of beef 33,000 percent.
"When you play, play hard; when you work, don't play at all. "

-- Theodore Roosevelt, 26th US president

IJIO
International Journal of Industrial Organization
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